Ectoine is an osmoprotectant in a variety of microorganisms including halophilic and heterotrophic bacteria and non-halophilic bacteria such as the Streptomyces species, as well as E.coli. It also exhibits protective effects in E.coli during drying and storage.


CAS # 96702-03-3


Ectoine: A Cyclic Tetrahydropyrimidine Organic Osmolyte

Ectoine is a cyclic tetrahydropyrimidine organic osmolyte, which was first isolated from an extremely halophilic species of the bacterial genus Ectothiorhodospira. Research literature has shown that ectoine protects the cellular membrane from damage caused by extremeo smotic stress.

Results: Ectoin® Rhinitis Spray diminished common rhinosinusitis symptoms such as nasal obstruction, nasal secretion, facial pain/headache, and smell/taste impairment. Upon treatment over 7 days, rhinosinusitis sum scores decreased statistically significantly (p < 0.001) by - 64.25%, which was comparable to that achieved with Xylometazoline-containing decongesting nasal spray (- 67.60%). No side effects were observed during treatment with Ectoin® Rhinitis Spray, whereas treatment with Xylometazoline-containing nasal spray resulted in nasal mucosa dryness. Concomitant treatment with both products diminished the development of nasal dryness and required fewer applications of Xylometazoline-containing nasal spray.

Conclusion: Ectoin® Rhinitis Spray is an effective, natural treatment option for acute rhinosinusitis, which may be used as monotherapy or as add-on treatment with a Xylometazoline-containing nasal spray. The concomitant use of Ectoin® Rhinitis Spray might reduce the needed dose of decongestant nasal spray and counteract bothersome side effects such as dry nasal mucosa.

Trial registration: The current study was registered in the database under the identifier: NCT03693976 (date of registration: Oct 3, 2018).